Camille Marino Arrested — Are Animal Rights Activists a “Hate Group”?
by Will Potter on February 14, 2012
Two activists with the animal rights group “Negotiation Is Over” (NIO) have been arrested at a protest in Florida. Group founder Camille Marino was arrested on an out of state warrant, and is awaiting extradition to Michigan.
In Michigan, NIO is campaigning against an animal experimenter at Wayne State University named Donal O’Leary, who uses dogs in heart experiments. One of the dogs, the Dalmation pictured above named Queenie, was forced to run on a treadmill with a device implanted in her heart, catheters protruding from her body, and open wounds leaking fluids. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine and five Michigan doctors urged the federal government to investigate O’Leary’s violations of the Animal Welfare Act.
Marino has allegedly posted personal information about O’Leary on the NIO website, alongside inflammatory commentary and her voicing support for physical violence. (Most of these posts appear to have been removed recently.) For example, on one of the NIO blog posts about O’Leary, a commenter wrote 800 words of gruesome details about what should be done to him, such as “We will then strap you into a monkey restraining device and use industrial pliers to crack your testicles like walnuts.”
Is there any chance I can persuade you to videotape your proposed activism so that we might upload it to NIO for the entire community to enjoy?
I just finished sending off an email to this motherfucker wishing him a slow painful death.
I would be elated to actually watch it come to pass!
In response to the violent rhetoric and posting of personal information, Wayne State University banned Marino from campus. Later, O’Leary obtained a court order that instructed Marino to remove the personal information from her website. She not only refused, she reposted it and wished him “good luck” collecting his legal fees.
Since her arrest, there has been wildly inaccurate information about the case. For instance, some NIO supporters claimed she was being held in a maximum security prison (she’s not, she is in Alachua County Jail). Others put out press releases saying that this was the first arrest under the National Defense Authorization Act (her arrest had nothing to do with NDAA). Such exaggeration doesn’t help anyone.
However, NIO’s opponents are spreading what could be much more dangerous misinformation.
Marino’s campaigning is controversial, but to call it a “hate group” is overreaching. Among the many differences between NIO and hate groups is that animal rights activists are opposing people because of what they do rather than who they are.
An even more important difference is that hate groups engage in physical violence, while NIO has only sensationally talked about it on blogs and Facebook.
As one commenter said on Hate Watch:
Upon reading the story it looks like Ms. Marino is not guilty of any serious crime… She did have a protective order issued against her, I’m not sure it was really violated here and it may get dismissed. She has committed no specific act of violence or damage to property. An expired drivers license is no big deal either.
These are important points to consider when discussing whether NIO’s blog is protected by the First Amendment. At the heart of the two key standards in First Amendment law is the question: Is the speaker using outrageous rhetoric to get attention, or will these threats be carried out?
In this case, the answer is clear.
While Marino and her followers may praise the tactics of anti-abortion extremist Scott Roeder and suicide bombers (Marino says: “If one is going to end their own suffering, it would be an admirable act if they took as many abusers as possible with them”) there has never been physical violence in the name of their cause.
And while Marino may write about how she is eager for the day when animal rights activists cross that line and murder human beings (and other activists have been saying the same thing for decades), it is just that: words.
There are limits to speech, of course, and there’s no doubt that NIO’s conduct tests those limits. But, as I wrote in Green Is the New Red:
The history of the First Amendment is one of protecting the vulgar, the crass, the wayward and unhinged. It has protected Clarence Brandenburg, a Ku Klux Klan leader, when he called for “revengeance” against the courts, Congress and the president, while Klansmen at the rally shouted “bury the niggers.” At a very different kind of rally, Robert Watts told anti-war protesters that he would refuse service if drafted to Vietnam. “If they ever make me carry a rifle,” he said, “the first man I want to get in my sights is L.B.J.”
Why have the courts upheld such a radical interpretation of the First Amendment? What can be the value of sensationalistic, offensive speech?
The courts have not made exceptions to the First Amendment lightly or without controversy, believing that the amount of protection afforded to those on the fringes reflects the freedoms of those at the center.
Protecting the rights of the Brandenburgs, the Wattses, and the Everses may sound outrageous to those who have been on the receiving end of the vitriol, such as animal experimenters.
And it might even sound outrageous to much of the animal rights movement, because NIO has been such a divisive and confrontational group amongst other animal activists.
But in cases like this all parties should step back and remember that, at its core, the First Amendment has never been about protecting or supporting unsavory speech; it’s about refusing to prohibit it.
What do you think? Should this be protected speech?
NIO was attacked! We need your help to get back online and wage our war on abusers!
Several months ago, we sustained two almost back-to-back DDOS attacks that were resolved rather quickly. It now appears that one of those was a little more sinister. We were hit with some kind of virus that has corrupted our configurations so that we cannot stay online. As soon as we go up, the servers overload. It is costing a fortune in technical support to isolate and extract the problematic scripts once and for all. My tech isolated a significant portion of the problem on Saturday night (a virus that’s sapping 75% of our resources). We’re almost there. But this is why NIO keeps going up and down.
We will continue to wage this war in the streets where we live and across-the-board through the internet. But we’ve been attacked and need our community’s help while we work to get back online. Any contributions may be made through paypal to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thank you in advance for your help, Camille
The following is from Ron Roberts.
Since its inception three years ago, NIO has become a powerful and unique voice in the movement for animal rights, as well as for the liberation of the planet and all beings from human oppression.
NIO has changed the rules by which animal activists engage abusers. The philosophy is simple yet profound; anyone who engages in the horrific treatment of any sentient being should no longer expect to remain anonymous. They and their family, friends, neighbors and colleagues should be made to face the awful truth.
NIO has opened a new front in the war to end animal exploitation and is a vital voice for the animals. In recent months, the financial burden in running NIO has been growing. This includes sizable administrative costs for a dedicated server and keeping up with technical innovations, as well as expenses associated with gathering the information necessary to expose sadistic torturers to the light of day.
In addition, there are many legal expenses involved in challenging the entrenched status quo and many potential legal avenues closed due to lack of adequate funding.
Animal agriculture and other abusers have unlimited money at their disposal to perpetuate their terrible lies and insinuate their unconscionable falsehoods into government and media. For NIO to continue to confront these moral criminals, the time has come for us to ask our supporters to make whatever financial commitment they can to the maintenance and growth of NIO.
Consequently, we have added a donate button to our site for your convenience. If the site is momentarily unavailable while our techs are working, please use paypal to send your contributions to email@example.com. Any money given will be used to continue the fight for animal rights. Unlike Peta, HSUS, ASPCA or most other animal welfare/rights organizations, every penny donated will go directly to the operations of NIO. Nothing will be taken for anyone’s salary or personal benefits. So please make whatever contribution you can to this vital voice for those who cannot speak for themselves and continue to do so on an ongoing basis.
For the Animals!!
Open letter to Air France-KLM representatives
Dear representatives of Air France,
We have been very disappointed to learn that your company transports animals intended for use in biomedical research. By participating in this cruel and unethical trade you bring shame on yourselves and your company, as well as causing considerable suffering to the animals whom you transport. They are forced to endure extremely stressful journeys, which can last up to 60 hours, and, as we are sure that you are aware, many of them die during transportation.
Animals in research laboratories are subjected to highly invasive experiments, which cause them immense pain and suffering, yet, as no species of animal is the biological model of another, the biological reaction of an animal to an unspecified substance reveals nothing about the consequences it will have on a human being. We invite you to judge this for yourself: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/4811626.stm
It is simply impossible to accurately recreate the physiological conditions within the human body in a non-human animal. For example, a human neuro-degenerative disease, largely influenced by our lifestyle and the hundreds of toxic substances present in our blood, simply cannot be recreated in any other species of animal. The fact of the matter is that animal experimentation is a scientific fraud that is being rejected by a growing number of researchers within the scientific community due to its obvious flaws and unreliability.
As an association we promote an ethical and reliable approach to scientific research, so it is for this reason that we ask that you immediately cease the transportation of animals to laboratories. The vast majority of airline companies now refuse to participate in this unethical business, and we ask that you now join with them by changing your company policy not to transport animals to research laboratories.
We don’t believe that either our supporters, nor many of your customers, would approve of your participation in this barbaric trade. Yet should you not change your position on this matter before March 21st, 2011, we will then be obliged to inform them of your conduct and invite them to no longer use your services.
We await a favourable answer on your part, and we remain at your disposal for any possible clarifications that you may require regarding this matter.
The Coalition Anti Vivisection France
Every University Animal Testing Laboratory In The UK
Foresterhill Animal House, Aberdeen Royal infirmary, University of Aberdeen, AB9 2ZD
Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB
Tel: 01224 716226
pigs, sheep, deer, rodents, primates, dogs (from Harlan)
Zoology Building, University of Aberdeen, Kings College campus, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ
voles breeding colony, rodents, Aqualab (upgraded 2002)
Medical School Animal House, IMS Building, University of Aberdeen, Cornhill Road, Foresterhill, Scotland, AB9 2ZD
rabbits, rats & breed rabbits
Marine Laboratory Aberdeen, Victoria Road, Aberdeen AB11 9DB
ASTON UNIVERSITY (BIRMINGHAM)
School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET
Brambell Building, University of Wales – Bangor, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2UW
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Quarry Road, Bath BA2 7AY
rodents & breeding
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY
Biomedical Services Unit, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT
(Central Animal House – holds rodents, dogs, primates)
also breeds rodents, but mainly buy from Charles River
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT
ferrets (Highgate Farm), rodents, geese
Medical School, University of Birmingham, B15
Rodents & breeding
MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, Department of Immunology, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT
Rodents (BMSU & Harlan UK)
Division of Physiology, Faculty of Health, Birmingham City University, Baker Building, Franchise Street, Perry Barr, Birmingham, B42 2SU
University of Bradford, IPI Building, Basement Level, Bradford, West Yorkshire, BD7 1DP
Rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs
University of Brighton, School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Science, Top Floor, Cockcroft Building, Lewis Road, Moulsecoomb, Brighton, BN2 4GJ
School of Clinical Veterinary Science, Langford, Bristol, BS40 5DU
- Division of Farm Animal Science
- Health Protection Agency Foodborne Zoonoses Unit
- Dolberry Building
- Churchill Building
Dogs, rodents, farm animals, Chickens, cats
University of Bristol Medical School, Physiology and Pharmacy Dept, University Walk, Clifton, Bristol, BS8 1TD
- H floor freezers
rodents (Harlan UK & breed own)
Department of Biological Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH
Cambridge Medical School, Downing Street, Cambridgeshire, CB2 1QW
500 primates at any one time
Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, CB2 3AT
Farm animals, primates, rodents, dogs
University Biomedical Department, south Cambridge.
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Hopkins Building, Building O, Downing Site, Cambridge CB2 1QW
rodents & breeding
Biological Sciences, School of the, 17 Mill Lane, Cambridge CB2 1RX
Department of Physiology Development & Neuroscience, Physiological Laboratory, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Trinity Lane, Cambridge CB2 1TN
Cambridge University Farm, 207 Huntingdon Road, Girton, CB3 0LH
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA
Experimental Psychology, Department of, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB
Genetics, Department of, Downing Site, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EH
Life Sciences, Graduate School of, 17 Mill Lane, Cambridge CB2 1RX
Zoology, Department of, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ
Anaesthesia, Division of, Level 4, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ
Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Addenbrooke’s Hospital Site, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY
MRC Cancer Cell Unit and University of Cambridge/Cancer Research UK, Department of Oncology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XZ
Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Box 289, Level 4, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ
Molecular Biology, Laboratory of, MRC Centre, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH
Neurology Unit, Level 5 and 6, A Block, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ
Section of Neuroradiology, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge University School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ
Veterinary Medicine, Department of, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES
School of Molecular and Medical Biosciences, 54 Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT
CENTRAL LANCASHIRE (PRESTON)
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester, Thomas Building, Parkgate Road, Chester, CH1 4BJ
Animal house shared with University of Warwick, departments with animal labs:
Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Richard Crossman Building, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB
Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, James Starley Building, CVI 5FB
Share with the University of Central Lancashire
DE MONTFORT (LEICESTER)
School of Life Sciences, Hawthorn Building, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH
College of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, Animal House, Level 5, Biomedical Research Institute, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY
School of Psychology, (old University Library), Dundee, DD1 4HN
Psychology Department, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE
School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE
mice, rats, rabbits, fish, and frogs
EAST ANGLIA (NORWICH)
School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ
Small Animal House [Block G] – 0131 650 6275
Large Animal House [Block F] – 0131 650 6276 / 07944826440
Easter Bush, Roslin, EH25 9RG
Roslin Institute, Dryden-Mountmarle, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS
March Animal House, March Building, King’s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JF
Medical Microbiology Animal House, School of Biomedical Sciences, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD
breeding – rodents
Ashworth Laboratories, King’s Buildings, West Mains Road, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JF
Rodents (From Harlan UK)
School of Life Sciences, Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex, CO4 3SQ
Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Wolfson Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ
Central Research Facility, Division of Immunology, Infection & Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, G11 6NT
Department of Zoology, Rooftop Laboratories, Central Research Facilities, University of Glasgow, Glasgow
rodents (From Harlan UK)
Department of Psychology, University of Greenwich, Southwood Site, Avery Hill Road, Eltham, London SE9 2UG
School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Wellington Street, London SE18 6PF
HERIOT WATT (EDINBURGH)
Department of Pharmacology, Syntex Research Centre, Heriot Watt University Research Park, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AP
Aptuit (previously Quintiles), Heriot-Watt University Research Park South, Edinburgh, EH14 4AP
Land owned by the university – Primates, dogs, rodents
School of Psychology, Neuroscience Research Unit, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB
Medical Research Laboratory. Wolfson Building,. University of Hull, HU6 7RX
rodents & breed
Department of Psychology, University of Hull, Cottingham Road Hull HU6 7RX
Tel: 01482 346 311
PHLS & Centre for MR Investigations, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2LZ
IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON
Central Biomedical Services, Imperial College, Charing Cross Campus, St Dunstan’s Road, London W6 8RP
Mansard Building Roof, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Rd., London, W12 ONN
Dept. of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Commonwealth Bldg., Du Cane Rd., London, W12 ONN
Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School (CXWMS)
St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School
KEELE UNIVERSITY (STAFFORDSHIRE)
Biology Dept, Huxley Building, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG
Biological Sciences Animal Unit, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ
Work with animals at Lancaster is very limited
Central Animal House, Top Floor, Worsley Building, Clarendon Way, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT
Top Floor, Clinical Sciences, Building, St James’s University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF,
Biomedical Services Unit, MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, LE1 9HN
‘Top secret’ primate breeding unit, Transgenic rodents & breeding
Department of Cell Physiology & Pharmacology, Medical Sciences Building,
Maurice Shock Building & Henry Wellcome Building.
Department of Physiology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN
Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH
Central Animal House, School of Biological Sciences, Top Floor, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool, L69 7ZB
breeding of transgenic rodents,
Unit of Reproductive Biology, University of Liverpool, Life Sciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 3BX
bats, rodent breeding colony (operated by Biochemistry Dept)
Department of Veterinary Clinical Science and Animal Husbandry, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Neston, South Wirral CH64 7TE
dogs, including ex-racing greyhounds (Zig Zag Kennels) and mongrels, cats, rodents, farm animals
Brownlow Hill and Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZJ
Physiology Laboratory, Physiology Building, Crown Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX
Liverpool Medical School, Top Floor, 150 Mount Pleasant, Liverpool, L69 3GD
dogs, rodents, primates
LIVERPOOL JOHN MOORES
School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF
Research Institute for Sports and Exercise Sciences, Henry Cotton Campus, Liverpool John Moores University, L3 2ET
:: UNIVERSITY OF LONDON (SUB-SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES) ::
INSTITUTE OF CANCER RESEARCH (ICR)
15 Cotswold Rd, Belmont, Sutton Surrey SM2 5NG
primates, beagles, rodents
Chester Beatty Laboratories, Top Floor, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB
KING’S COLLEGE LONDON
Pharmaceutical Science Division, Franklin-Wilkins Building, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH
Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Centre for Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, King’s College, Guy’s Campus London, St Thomas’ Hospital, SE1 7EH
Beagles, rodents, rabbits
Division of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, King’s College London, Guys Campus, London,
Dept of Psychology, Henriette Raphael Building, School of Biomedical Sciences, King’s College London, Guys Campus, London
Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology, GKT School of Biomedical Sciences, 5th Floor Hodgkin Building, Guy’s Campus, King’s College London, London, SE1 1UL
LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGENE & TROPICAL MEDICINE
Animal House, 4th Floor, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT
School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX
rodents (from Harlan UK)
ROYAL VETERINARY SCHOOL (Conduct vivisection, not just holding animals for lessons)
Top Floor, Royal College Street, London, NW1 0TU
Cats, dogs, rodents
Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Veterinary College Field Station, Hawkshead House, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts, AL9 7TA
ST GEORGES U.O.L.
Biological Research Facilities, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE
LONDON SCHOOL OF PHARMACY
Top Floor, University of London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London, WC1N 1AX
Rodents and breeding, also have involvement with Guy’s Hospital animal labs
EASTMAN DENTAL INSTITUTE
Division of Microbial Disease, Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray’s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD
Institute of Child Health, 30 Guildford Street, Bloomsbury, London, WC1
INSTITUTE OF NEUROLOGY
Institute of Neurology, Chandler House, 1 Wakefield Street London WC1N 1PJ
Medical Research Council’s Prion Unit, Institute of Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London , WC1N 3BG
rodents, cattle, sheep, goats
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON
Biotechnology and Biological Services, Research Council Centre for Structural Biology, University College London, London
Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology and Centre for Neuroscience, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT
Eisai London Research Laboratories Ltd. University College London, Bernard Katz Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT
rodents & breeding (Note: Have an injunction against animal rights activists)
Bloomsbury Institute of Intensive Care Medicine, Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT
rodents (From Charles River)
The National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London , NW7 1AA
rodents, cats, primates, dogs, rabbits
Owned by MRC, however operated by University College London
Stopford Building, 4th Floor (top), Manchester University Medical School, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT
rodents – Charles River, Jackson Laboratories
own breeding of rodents, guinea pigs also supply external, university of warwick
AV Hill Building, off Dover Street, Manchester, M13 9PL
rodents, beagles, pigs
Animal Services Unit, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Withington, Manchester, M20 4BX
rodents and breeding
Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, Henry Wellcome Building, Faculty of Life Sciences, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7ND
The Medical School, Newcastle University, Henry Wellcome Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH
rodents & breeding, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits, primates
Division of Psychology, School of Biology and Psychology, Newcastle University, Henry Wellcome Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH
School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development Agriculture Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU
Pigs, Sheep, Cattle, birds
Queens Medical Centre (QMC), Central Animal House, Top Floor, University of Nottingham Medical School, NG7 2UH
Rodents, primates, beagles
Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD
The School of Biology, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD
rodents & breeding
Department of Zoology, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD
Rodents (From Harlan)
School of Psychology, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD
University Of Nottingham, Sutton Bonnington Campus, College Road, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5NT
Rodents, dogs, pigs, cattle, sheep
School Of Animal, Rural & Environmental Sciences, Brackenhurst Farm, Nottingham Trent University, Brackenhurst Campus, Southwell, Nottinghamshire NG25 0QF
The John van Geest Cancer Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS
OPEN UNIVERSITY (MILTON KEYNES)
Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA
Department of Biology, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA
breeding & rodents
OXFORD (Note: Have an injunction)
Halifax House, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, OX1 3PS
Primates, rodents, fish
Department of Experimental Psychology, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, OX1 3PS
Primates, rodents, cats, aviary on roof
Laboratory of Developmental Physiology, Top Floor, John Radcliffe Hospital, Nuffleld Institute for Medical Research, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS
cattle, primates, rodents, cats
The Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital
Department of Biochemistry at the University of Oxford (roof)
Rodents & breeding
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS
Department ofAgricultural Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford 0X1 3PF
Sir William Dunn School Of Pathology, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RE
School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP
School of Psychology, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, PLYMOUTH, Devon, PL4 8AA
Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA
School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael’s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, Hamps PO1 2DT
QUEEN MARGARET (EDINBURGH)
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital
QUEEN’S UNIVERSITY (BELFAST)
School of Biology and Biochemsitry, Queen’s University of Belfast, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, BT9 7BL, IRELAND
School of Psychology, Queen’s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, BT7 1NN
School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, Earley Gate, Reading, RG6 6AL
Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR
School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6UR
ROBERT GORDON (ABERDEEN)
School of Pharmacy & Life Sciences, The Robert Gordon University, Schoolhill, Aberdeen, AB10 1FR
Roehampton University, School of Human and Life Sciences, Whitelands College, Holybourne Avenue, London, SW15 4JD
ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS
The Royal College of Surgeons of England, 35-43 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PE
rodents & breeding, rabbits
School of Environment & Life Sciences, Peel Building, Salford Crescent, Manchester M5 4WT
Lankester Building Animal House, Salford Crescent, Manchester, M5 4WT
rodents, dogs & large animals
University of Sheffield Medical School, Top Floor, Beech Hill Road, S10 2RX
cats, rodents & breeding
Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Addison Building, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN
rodents & breeding
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN
Centre for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, The Kroto Research Institute, North Campus, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield, S3 7HQ
rabbit breeding colony
Biomedical Research Centre, Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Science and Maths, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB
rats (From Eisai Research Laboratories, London)
School of Biomedical Sciences Building Animal House, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton, SO16 7PX
Rats (purchased from Harlan UK), breeding of GM mice
Department of University Medicine, University of Southampton, Level D, South Block, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD
Rodents & breeding
ST. ANDREW’S (FIFE)
School of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, KY16 9TS
Department of Biology and Pre-clinical Medicine, University of St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9TS
Gatty Marine Laboratory, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland, KY16 8LB
Psychology Department, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA
School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland, FK9 4LA.
Niall Bromage Freshwater Research Facility, Takmadoon Road, Buckieburn, near Carron Bridge, FK6 5JJ
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NR
Rodents (from Harlan UK)
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, The John Arbuthnott Building, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow, G4 0NR
Rodents (from Harlan UK) & breed
University of Strathclyde, Royal College, 204 George Street, Glasgow G1 1XW
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, SGBS, 199 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0QU
Sunderland Pharmacy School, University of Sunderland, The Science Complex, City Campus, Fleming Building, Wharncliffe Street, Sunderland, SR1 3SD
Medical School, AW Building, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7TE
Faculty of Health and Medical Science, Duke of Kent Building, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7TE
Nutritional Sciences/Biochemical Sciences, AY Building, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7TE
School of Life Sciences & Biology, John Maynard Smith (JMS) Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG
Guinea-pig breeding colony, rodents – CRL
Department of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH
Trafford Centre for Graduate Medical Education and Research, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RY
Institute of Life Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP
Neuroscience and Molecular Psychiatry (Conduct vivisection in ILS)
School of Medicine, Grove Building, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry, Ireland, BT52 1SA
Rodents & breeding
UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ENGLAND (UWE)
Animal Science Centre, Hartpury College, Hartpury House, Gloucester, GL19 3BE
Department of Biological Sciences, Gibbet Hill Campus, Gibbet Hill Road, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL
Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Campus, Gibbet Hill Road, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL
mice, breed for their use and supply Southampton University
Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of Wolverhampton, City Campus – South, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 1LY
Department of Biology (Area 3), University of York, York YO10 5YW
There are plans to build a high level  virus containment facility & animal testing lab in Camden. The lab has been described as “becoming the world’s largest ever animal testing lab” & will be partially govt funded by 40 -50%. Currently Huntingdon Life Sciences near Cambridge is the third largest such European lab & the two labs could be in direct “competition” with each other say campaigners.
The Lab will bring together scientists from three leading biomedical research organisations to develop new treatments for illnesses such as cancer, heart disease and stroke, infections, and neurodegenerative diseases that affect families in the UK and around the world.
The roots of these and all diseases lie in the altered functioning of cells or the way they interact within the body. Developing a better understanding of biological processes in health will help us understand why disease develops and how it might be treated.
Progress in biomedical research is rapid, so UKCMRI’s research programme will not be defined in detail until closer to its opening in 2015.
Boris Johnson has approved plans for the UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation (UKCMRI)
1500 staff, including 1250 scientists
Annual budget of over £100m
Initial investment of £600m (breakdown)
Thousand of animals will be tested on
Camden Councils Development Control committee by a majority of 4, voted in favour of granting planning permission to the UKCRMI.
The committee voted 8 in favour, 4 against
Claire-Louise Leyland, Conservative (Belsize)
Paul Braithwaite, Liberal Democrat (Cantelowes)
Sean Birch, Labour (Gospel Oak)
Matt Sanders, Liberal Democrat (Haverstock).
Milena Nuti, Labour (Bloomsbury)
Sue Vincent, Labour (Holborn and Covent Garden)
Sarah Hayward, Labour (King’s Cross)
Roger Freeman, Conservative (Swiss Cottage)
Heather Johnson, Labour (Regent’s Park)
Andrew Marshall, Conservative (Swiss Cottage)
Gillian Risso-Gill, Liberal Democrat (West Hampstead)
Jenny Headlam-Wells, Labour (Kentish Town).
Scientists create ‘sick pigs’ to cure humans
• Genetic modification has produced pigs that glow in blue light – now the Roslin scientists hope to use the technique to produce animals suffering from human diseases to aid research into cures. Picture: Complimentary/The Roslin Institute
The team of researchers is trying to produce pigs which are diseased with the lethal lung condition cystic fibrosis and an eye disease that leads to blindness in humans, The Scotsman has learned.
The highly controversial research is being carried out at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, famous for creating Dolly the cloned sheep. If the team is successful, the diseased animals would be used by drug companies to test potential new gene therapies for the conditions.
The cutting-edge research raises major ethical issues about harming animals intentionally for the benefit of humans. It has led to outrage from animal rights organisations.
In a frank interview with The Scotsman, Dr Bruce Whitelaw, head of developmental biology at the Roslin Institute, admitted he had struggled with the idea of creating diseased animals purely to try to benefit humans.
“We are saying we will make these animals sick purely for our benefit,” he admitted. However, he believes his team has a “moral right” to give the technique a try.
His work will be the subject of a debate tonight at Edinburgh Zoo on the ethics of genetically modifying animals.
Cystic fibrosis is an incurable hereditary condition that often leads to death in the early twenties. It is one of the most common life-threatening inherited diseases, affecting more than 8,500 people in the UK, including the son of the former prime minister, Gordon Brown.
Retinitis pigmentosa is the name given to a group of hereditary diseases of the eye, which affects about 25,000 people in the UK. It is a progressive genetic disease that eventually leads to blindness.
Dr Whitelaw said the pigs would be used as “models of the human diseases” to provide a better way to test potential treatments.
Existing options involve using mice, which he said were “inadequate”.
Dr Whitelaw believes there are theoretical reasons why pigs should be good models for human disease – because of many physical similarities, such as similar eye size.
However, he acknowledged that creating the diseased animals would “not necessarily” allow treatments to be developed.
But he said that, since the Roslin had managed to develop the techniques to modify the animals in this way, they should find out if it could help to find cures.
“We have this technology. It’s really important to try to see if it can help. It may not, in which case we should stop.
“I don’t think we should use this technology for something we can currently treat just so we can make the treatment slightly better, but we should use it for diseases that we don’t have treatments for,” he said.
He emphasised that, if the technique turned out not to be useful for finding treatments, he would be arguing “as strongly as anyone else” that it should no longer be used.
“But we should find out,” he added. “I believe we’ve got a moral right to find out.”
Dr Whitelaw believes it will take at least two years to produce the genetically modified pigs, and another two years to find out whether they could be treated.
He continued to justify the work by adding: “If we believe we need to have therapies for these diseases – and currently society en masse believes that – then we surely have to have that tested in the best way we can before it goes into that patient.
“Then the better the animal model – the more likely it’s going to tell you something about going into a human patient – the better.
“And basically mice are mediocre at best and the majority of studies are done on mice.”
The work at the Roslin Institute, which began last year, is unique in the UK.
So far, the scientists have not successfully created animals with the diseases.
The technique involves the use of viruses to carry chosen genes into fertilised eggs.
Once altered, the eggs are then implanted in surrogate females, so that theoretically animals are born with the genetic conditions.
The resulting pigs are a type of what is known as a transgenic animal – creatures that have inserted DNA that originated in a different species.
Already, to prove genes could be successfully inserted into animals using the technique, pigs have been produced at Roslin that carry a green fluorescent protein gene found naturally in jellyfish.
The animals have a greenish tinge in normal light and when viewed in blue light they glow. This was done to provide the scientists with a genetic marker – a physical manifestation of how the pigs had been modified.
The work at the Roslin Institute will be the subject of a debate called “After Dolly… where do you draw the line?” at Edinburgh Zoo tonight, when Dr Whitelaw will be joined by Peter Sandøe, professor of bioethics at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Animal rights groups reacted with horror at the news.
Andrew Tyler, the director of Animal Aid, said the techniques involved the “intrusive, harmful, painful experiments on animals” and should be banned.
He also believes the science behind the research is flawed.
“This type of work leads to an enormous attrition rate of animals being born malformed or dying in the womb,” he said.
“The gene that is being added is being put in a different species and it interacts with all sorts of other genes so you cannot extrapolate from these altered animals to people.
“This should stop. It’s cruel and it’s scientifically fraudulent. It’s also fraudulent to the people who will think a cure is imminent, and it’s an intolerable imposition on the animals concerned.”
Dr Jarrod Bailey, scientific adviser for the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, argued that animals could not be used to predict whether a new treatment would be safe in people.
“Animal research is a failure. Around 100 Aids vaccines, over two dozen diabetes treatments and hundreds of treatments for stroke, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, cancer and many more diseases – worked in mice, monkeys and even chimpanzees, yet failed in humans.
“Genetic modification has failed to overcome species differences at the root of these failures.”
And he added that it was cruel.
“Pigs have cognitive abilities more advanced than three-year-old children, ranking behind only dolphins and non-human primates,” he said.
Libby Anderson, political director at Advocates for Animals, said it made her “despair”.
“It’s depressing to hear this repeated focus on modified and mutated animals, when there is so much potential for non-animal research,” she said.
“It sounds like they are going down a blind alley, and even in the scientists’ mind it is clearly raising huge ethical issues.”
The Scottish SPCA was also opposed to the work, but chief superintendent Mike Flynn added that he acknowledged that “for the time being” animal testing was “required before essential medicines can be made available to relieve suffering in humans and animals”.
He added: “Thankfully, there have been improvements in this area in recent years and animals can only be used to help develop cures for life-threatening or debilitating disease.”
Experiments such as those taking place at the Roslin Institute are scrutinised by the Home Office Inspectorate and are licensed following consideration of the expected benefit and the welfare cost to the animals.
Dr Whitelaw told The Scotsman he was looking forward to hearing the views of the public at today’s debate.
“I think anyone is entitled to any opinion they have got,” he said. “I think the strength of a society is that we have grown-up debates and come to a conclusion. If society came to the conclusion that we shouldn’t do this, then I would accept that. I would think it was a wasted opportunity, but I would accept it.”
At the cutting edge of research
THE Roslin Institute was established in 1993 as a wholly-owned but independent institute of the Biotechnology and Biological Research Council (BBRC). Its antecedents, however, go back to 1919 and are closely linked to animal genetics research at the University of Edinburgh.
Its mission is to gain fundamental understanding of genetic, cellular, organ and systems bioscience underpinning common mechanisms of animal development and pathology, and to drive this into prevention and treatment of important veterinary diseases and develop sustainable farm animal production systems.
Based in the Midlothian village from where it takes its name, the institute is due to move next year to a £60.6 million facility currently under construction at the University of Edinburgh’s Easter Bush Veterinary campus.
In 1996, the institute won international fame and sparked ethical debate when Sir Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and their colleagues created Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell. Scientists cloned the ewe by inserting DNA from a single sheep cell into an egg before implanting it in a surrogate mother.
Three years ago, a Roslin team developed genetically modified chickens capable of laying eggs containing proteins needed to make cancer-fighting drugs.
Last year, scientists discovered genetic “brakes” which could slow down or stop diseases such as multiple sclerosis and cancer.
The study discovered that the way specific genes interact with one another is much more complicated than was previously thought.
The institute employs 68 research staff over five scientific divisions, and its current director is Professor David Hume.
Hogging the limelight in Africa
ANIMALS are being genetically modified at the Roslin Institute to increase resistance to disease.
As well as creating pigs with incurable human conditions, the scientists are also trying to modify the creatures so they can survive a virus called African swine flu.
Whereas European pigs – the large, meat-producing variety – quickly die from the disease if introduced to Africa, the African variety, the warthog, is resistant.
But the two breeds are unable to mate to produce a large, meat-producing variety that is resistant to the disease.
So instead the Roslin scientists have identified a gene in the African warthog they believe could be responsible for the resistance.
“If you take one of our large, meat-producing animals and put it into Africa, within 24 hours it (will be infected and] will bleed to death, which limits our ability to genetically bring this large, high-producing animal into sub-Saharan subsistence,” said Dr Whitelaw
“The version of the gene the African pigs have, we believe, may be part of the reason they don’t die from this virus.”
The work is still at an early stage and no pigs have yet been born that are resistant.
Dr Whitelaw believes the public will find the use of genetic modification in order to help animals stave off disease less controversial than modifying pigs so that they suffer from incurable human conditions.
“Many people, I presume, would say that making an animal able to resist an infection is good.
“When we go to India we get a whole string of vaccinations and we wouldn’t dare go there without. This is a similar idea.”
However, he still believes it raises complex issues.
“But then you go into issues about what impact bringing in that new type of pig would have on the ecosystem and the society, which are quite complex debates.”